Typical dicot stem, Helianthus Stem c.s., popular botany slides at primary and middle school
Helianthus is also known as a sunflower. It’s an annual flowering plant (an angiosperm). Since it’s an annual, there is no secondary growth visible in the stem; no growth rings or lateral meristems such as you might see in a woody stem.
Helianthus is a dicot, and the vascular bundles form a ring around the perimeter of the stem. Each bundle contains xylem and phloem.
Cross section of Helianthus stem with tissues labeled
The xylem is toward the inside. The xylem cells are large and thick-walled, and they are stained red in this slide. Xylem cells occur toward the inside of the vascular bundle, closer to the center of the stem.
The phloem lies just outside the xylem; the phloem cells are smaller, with thin walls and blue staining. Just outside the active phloem there are phloem fiber cells. These tough, reinforced cells are stained red and look similar to xylem cells. However, they don’t seem to be involved in transport within the plant. Instead, they apparently function mainly to strengthen the stem.
The middle of the stem is filled with a ground tissue called pith.
The outer layer of the stem is the epidermis, which protects the stem and reduces water loss.
Description of Helianthus Stem c.s.:
- Other name: Sunflower Stem c.s.
- Size: 76.2*25.4mm
- Thickness: 5um
- Stain: Safranine and Fast Green
- Show: vascular tissue with visible xylem stained red, epidermis and cortex visible
- Storage: long-lasting
- MOQ: 1PC
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Useful knowledge of Prepared microscope slides
C.S. = Cross Section: slide shows a thin section through the transverse plane of an organism or tissue.
L.S. = Longitudinal Section: slide shows a vertical section of the organism along the longest plane.
C.S. & L.S. = Cross Section and Longitudinal Section on the same slide for comparison
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